The Dignity and Indignities of Comanchería

Across the span of 1700 to 1875, the Comanche carved an empire into the American southwest roughly the size of modern-day Texas. Their instruments were both legendary and notorious: open-handed trade, remorseless warfare, unparalleled horsemanship. “Comanche” means “the people.” To outsiders, it came to signify “the lords of the plains.”

Comanchería, as their empire was called, would not survive. Between outbreaks of smallpox and cholera, the extermination of the great herds of buffalo, and continued incursions, the Comanche gave ground, then dwindled, then accepted the treaty that consigned them to a reservation. Far from the cataclysmic fall of a great empire, it was a succession of small cuts, gnawing infections, and inflicted indignities.

Joel Toppen’s Comanchería: The Rise and Fall of the Comanche Empire captures every excruciating detail. It is one of the finest historical games I have ever played. It also represents one of the hardest gaming experiences of my adult life.

Comanchería’s first two eras are marked by expansion.

The Comanche lodged in tipis. Made of wooden poles and softened buffalo hides, tipis were perfectly suited to the nomadic lifestyle. Heated by a fire, they were warm in the winter. In summertime, they could be partially rolled up to admit the breeze. Most importantly, a band could pack their tipis within a quarter hour. Sometimes, such speed was necessitated by the hunt. Other times, it enabled a band to melt into the landscape before their pursuers could catch them.

The lodging for Toppen’s Comanchería is a four-era structure that can be played in single installments, as part of a larger scenario, or strung together to create a many-hours-long campaign that covers the entire rise and decline of the Comanche people. The first two eras chart the migration and expansion of the Comanche into the region that will become their empire. Although these years couldn’t be described as easy, they’re filled with ample opportunities and unsuspecting foes, largely in the form of a distant and failing Spanish Empire. As Mexico, the Republic of Texas, and the United States enter the scene, the game’s final eras are marked by incursions both deliberate and incidental. When the campaign concludes, the success of the Comanche is a question of independence — whether the people who colonized the plains have escaped full colonization themselves, remaining free to inhabit their lands without being wholly relocated to the reservation.

The reservation. That’s the setting of my own lodging, however temporary. Between 2005 and 2006, I lived among the Crow Nation of Montana, where I worked as a Mormon missionary. My feelings about that time are complicated. Some of those memories are deeply important to me, formative as they were to how my naïve nineteen-year-old self framed the world. Others are dangerous to touch. That’s why I’ve owned Toppen’s Comanchería since its release in 2016 but couldn’t bring myself to crack the box until a couple of months ago. From the game’s first moments, the flood of memories was nearly overwhelming. More than once, I found myself sitting at the table, exploring the past the way a tongue might probe a canker sore. Sometimes delicately. Sometimes pressing into the wound to bring the pain to the surface.

Each Rancheria has its own ratings and inventory.

Whenever I’ve mentioned Comanchería on social media, the big question is whether it treats its subject matter sensitively. We’re speaking, after all, about a culture that’s been the recipient of multiple forms of colonization. Not only literal removal, but also a removal of perspective. The tendency to sand away history’s rough edges isn’t limited to the American Indians, but it’s hard to ignore popular media’s propensity for reducing native cultures to either wholly savage or wholly hippie, either villain or deuteragonist, and, above all, interchangeable.

When it comes to the Comanche, Toppen is tackling a subject that refuses to be pinned down. Much of the Comanche’s success was found in their willingness to trade horses to their neighbors, which they did with all comers. At the same time, this policy of openness was often overshadowed by their reputation in war. The phrase “Comanche moon” referred to the stretches of full moon when the Comanche would ride into Mexico to raid for firearms, horses, cattle, and captives. Slavery was a hallmark of Comanche expansion. Captives were sold to the Spanish or used for labor; in other cases they were adopted, integrating into the Comanche ranks and providing much-needed manpower.

Toppen’s approach is best described as frank. Although abstracted at points, he presents the entire story, refusing to reduce the Comanche to stock villains or victims. Instead, they emerge as a complicated and dynamic people, both generous and vicious. Above all, it’s a story about a people who insist on retaining their dignity even if it means declaring war on the entire world. Unsurprisingly, even the slightest accommodation to the game’s enemies becomes a tragedy.

But we’re getting ahead of ourselves.

Enemy behavior is handled brilliantly.

The standout detail is Comanchería’s rhythm of play, which is deeply entrenched in both the behavior of the Comanche and their many rivals. At the risk of framing the story around the game’s antagonists, they provide a natural starting point that illustrates how Comanchería functions both as a game and as history. Think of this as the farthest point in our orbit of the Comanche, a panoramic view that will grow closer with each passage.

Whether we’re talking about Spain, Mexico, Texas, the United States, or the disparate tribes who serve as early fodder for the Comanche, the game’s many opponents function according to a rubric that initially seems opaque but adheres to a strict logic that soon becomes second nature. Each rival aligns with a point on the compass. Early on, Spain sits to the west and south, with other Indians situated to the north. As time passes, these rivals are subjected to politics far beyond your ability to influence. Mexico will break away from Spain, then Texas from Mexico. The United States slouches into view, slowly at first and then suddenly. Indian politics are preeminent, then a vague memory.

Each rival is controlled by a column of instruction chits. Peace sees that rival striking a temporary truce. War places a column on the map, which beelines from enemy territory to the nearest rancheria, the principal concentration of Comanche population. Those are the big ones, but they’re underscored by smaller instructions: small settlements on the perimeter of your territory, the subjugation of tribes you’re fighting anyway, buffalo herds wiped from existence, the gradual erosion of Comanche culture.

Ravaged settlements must recover or fail entirely.

In all cases, these instructions are governed by two principles. First, you can see what’s coming, but only imperfectly, like the first wisps of a storm on the horizon. For example, it’s possible to know that the Republic of Texas intends to declare war sometime in the near future, after a period of buffalo hunting. But when Texas activates — itself an uncertainty determined by the roll of a die — one of its instruction chits is flipped at random. Perhaps its upcoming hunt will transform into a preemptive bid for peace, nipping its warmongering aspirations in the bud. But it’s also entirely possible that one of its flipped chits will result in a column of soldiers marching through your lands far earlier than you anticipated.

With the right investments, it’s possible to manipulate these outcomes — although, again, only imperfectly, flipping a chit here and there. Hardly enough to offset a determined foe. The surer method is violence, which brings us to the second principle: that your enemies are heavily reactive to your actions. Prospective paraibos (chiefs) will soon discover that the easiest way to stem the many incursions into your territory is by raiding settlements. Whenever a raid is successful, a “ravaged” marker is inflicted on its target. The next time that settlement’s owner would activate a chit in their instruction column, they pay its original action cost, but then attempt a Recover action in place of their original instruction. They’re busy dealing with the fallout of your raid: putting out fires, searching for survivors, mounting minor expeditions, that sort of thing.

This might sound like a good thing for the Comanche. Preemptive attacks paralyze your rivals! Why would you ever do anything else?

About that. First, your raids must be successful. Every time you attempt one, you draw from a cup filled with chits that either indicate success or grant additional action points to whichever enemy randomly activates at the end of the turn. In effect, failure to deal a staggering blow only invigorates your rivals. Further, when you draw successes, they’re assigned to your mahimianas (raiding leaders) or temporarily moved out of play. Your odds of success decrease with each victory as your opponents get wise to your tactics. The more bruises you inflict, the better your victims get at blocking.

The Santa Fe Trail presents a bewildering incursion into Comanche territory.

This reactivity is at the core of Comanchería. The result is a seasonal rhythm, not unlike the full moons that struck fear along the Mexican border. When on the warpath, your actions must be swift and decisive, inflicting as much damage and making off with as many captives as possible. The rest of the time, softer footsteps are in order. Hunting buffalo, trading with nearby towns, ensuring your culture doesn’t dwindle to nothing. Each possible action is important, but the greatest moments of transformation come when Planning or allowing the Passage of Time. Both of these actions represent a shift in direction. In the case of Planning, the headmen who run your rancherias may gain experience from the success chits they’ve earned, but your bands will decrease in size. During the Passage of Time, new generations arise to take the place of the old and culture can be spent on new techniques and tactics to stay one step ahead of your enemies, but unspent successes are forgotten and older headmen may die to make space for younger but more inexperienced leaders.

Don’t mistake this for an easy rhythm. Even the quietest season can be interrupted when far-off enemies decide to enter your lands with blood on their thoughts. Such moments intrude into the player-driven rhythms of play, like a rifle shot startling birds to flight. Warfare is a testy proposition. Enemy war columns sometimes march and sometimes remain in place. They suffer attrition or don’t. A flipped card presents a temporary advantage — stealing poorly protected mounts, trading captives for peace — or even sees the war column double-timing their pace to ambush one of your camps. Opportunities are fleeting. In the best of times, you’ll evade and harry and ultimately triumph. Other times, a weakness will expose itself at the exact moment you can’t take advantage of it.

The effect is disquieting. Like the Comanche, you know the broad strokes. You understand what your opponents might do. You know that by launching a raid or leaving nearby settlements alone, you might minimize how far they intrude into your empire. You know the rules.

But the application of those rules can be unevenly applied. Not only in the sense that a raid fails or a roll doesn’t go your way. Rather, in the sense that peacetime can give way to brutal warfare without apparent warning, or careful diplomatic overtures can go ignored, or quiet coexistence can prove impossible. Sure, you know the rules. But your neighbors only follow them at their convenience.

Comanche culture is literalized in multiple ways. Here, we have culture cards.

I lived in Hardin, the port town to the Crow Nation. Our most rewarding work revolved around service: splitting firewood, moving homes, visiting the sick, helping with community events. We were directed to baptize, but since most folks were entrenched in their congregations, we mostly waited for people to approach us rather than proselytizing. At one point, a family of occasional members asked us to teach and baptize their nine-year-old son. The only local congregation was located in Hardin and staffed by whites, with a bishop who didn’t think much of the Crow. We were required to cooperate with this bishop, as there was nobody else who could host the baptism. There were always rumors about the congregation in Dunmore, one of a small string of towns administered by the Crow, which had been shuttered years before. According to this bishop, the closure was due to the unsuitability of the Crow to leadership. When we left his office, I overheard him or one of his counselors mutter about how we were bringing more “prairie-nigger welfare cases” into the fold. The others laughed.

That was the first time I’d heard an authority figure in the church speak the language of overt racism.

Saturday arrived, the scheduled morning of the baptism. It was biting cold even though it hadn’t snowed in weeks. The boy and his family arrived at the church only to discover that nobody from the Hardin congregation was there. The building was locked. No problem, we figured; we had the keys. Inside, the baptismal font was empty. While we hurried to fill it, two white members arrived. They sang a few children’s hymns and gave the boy a gift to commemorate the occasion. Right before we ushered everybody into the baptistry, we made one final discovery: the accordion door that separated the font from the rest of the room was locked tight. We didn’t have a key for that. I produced my cricket knife and what Mormons call a “quad,” a combination Bible, Book of Mormon, and Doctrine & Covenants. Chiseling away at the lock, I figured I looked either like Martin Luther at the All Saints’ Church in Wittenberg or a total doofus. In my hubris, I secretly hoped the former.

The lock broke. The boy was baptized. We thought we’d done right. His family was all grins. Hugs all around, even though we were still soaking from the water.

A month later, we drove out from Hardin to where the family lived on the prairie. They’d lapsed again. The bishop took this as proof he’d been right all along. The father of the boy I’d baptized walked with me around the back of his double-wide mobile home, where his kids were jumping on a trampoline and pestering the half-wild rez dogs that were always hanging around the edges of anywhere people lived.

“Do you think I’m good for nothing?” he asked.

I sputtered. Of course not! Where had he heard that?

“At church. They think I’m good for nothing.” He paused a long time, looking at his boy doing tricks on the trampoline. The air was cold. It was always cold when I lived on the rez. He bit that air in anger with each word. His teeth were the color of the inside of a soda can. “I have a job. I went to school. More school than some of them.” There was no doubting who them were. The whites of the church in Hardin. My people. Me.

We shook hands. He slapped me on the back. I said goodbye to his boy and he gave me a hug. When we came back a few weeks later, the mobile was empty. There were no dogs hanging around. The family had moved along. I sat on the frame of the trampoline and felt that there was nothing in the whole wheeling universe. After a few minutes, my companion claimed I was being lazy, and we climbed back into the truck and drove to Hardin, where that night we joined a potluck at the church and listened to hymns about the love of Jesus. I pretended to have a sore throat so I wouldn’t have to sing along.

Events are rarely favorable.

There is a sullenness to the realization that you have become the latest indignity in a string of them. I understand why we recoil from such statements. Nobody wants to hear that something they were told was good and right was truly something else. Nobody wants to be the person who throws out the rulebook as soon as something doesn’t roll their way. Yet that’s often the case. The same rules that strictly enforce one group can suddenly become guidelines when applied to another.

Who are the Comanche? Playing Comanchería, one is only presented with the broad strokes. The subtler lines are necessarily compressed. What their culture looked like. How their family units were organized. Who married whom, how childbirth was handled, how death. These are not malicious omissions. They’re the details that go missing from every game about big ideas and the sweep of history. In their place, the Comanche are marked by many descriptions. Hunters, raiders, horse-breeders, lords of the plains. Uniting them all, they are defiance personified.

Comanchería doesn’t offer a battle between good and evil. It does something far more difficult. It exhibits the task of empire-building from both directions. First, from the perspective of the conqueror as the Comanche displace their weaker neighbors, shore up their borders, and establish networks of trade, family, and defense. Second, from the perspective of the conquered. In place of a final stand, the Comanche are brought low by a hundred indignities. Diseases that wipe out entire bands. Dwindling buffalo that leave you without peaceful avenues of trade and growth. Passing wagon trains that deplete the land and keep coming no matter how many you run off. Neighboring empires who sign peace treaties only to break them. Who, at the last, consign you to the reservation, your headmen no longer able to raid or hunt, your bands trapped in place. This last indignity is the worst of them all, because it doesn’t come from the strength of arms. At least those defeats might have been hard-fought. Instead, this is the triumph of bureaucracy. Where guns and horsemanship and the long struggle have taken their toll, the pen delivers the final stroke.

The final indignity.

It would be easy to double the length of this review. Instead, it seems appropriate to conclude here. Toppen’s Comanchería isn’t the most playable game about colonization, but it does seem to be the most honest. The Comanche made an empire through violence, slavery, and trade. In the end, their empire suffered many of the same indignities they had inflicted on others, and more besides. Comanchería refuses to engage in simple characterization. This is the story of a people, dignity and indignities intact, and it refuses to ease the telling for the sake of the listener’s comfort. None of the hours I’ve spent in its company have been easy. And I’m grateful to it for that.

 

(If what I’m doing at Space-Biff! is valuable to you in some way, please consider dropping by my Patreon campaign or Ko-fi.)

A complimentary copy was provided.

Posted on July 2, 2021, in Board Game and tagged , , , . Bookmark the permalink. 27 Comments.

  1. Such a good and heartfelt review. I really appreciate you sharing your personal connection to this game’s theme, and in doing it in such a poetic way. The end result is more than a game review, it’s art. Thank you.

    • Thank you for your kind words, gothmagog. This piece was… draining. And I was worried it would be taken the wrong way. So I appreciate hearing that it worked, at least for some.

  2. Tragic and beautiful. I am often touched by your reviews, even though they’re “only” about games. Maybe never more than this. Thank you for this piece, and for what you tried to do and be years ago. I have also worked as a minister of “the love of Jesus,” and have some of my own painful stories of the times I dealt with the racism of my church, both overt and covert, in Arkansas and Missouri.

    I grew up in NW New Mexico around the Navajo people, and had a few Navajo friends, and warm memories of many Mormon friends, too, including my favorite teacher. Probably in part for such nostalgic reasons, I’ve “enjoyed” Toppen’s earlier game, Navajo Wars.

    • I also owned Navajo Wars for years, but couldn’t bring myself to play it. Eventually I sold it to Mike Barnes, who did it justice where I couldn’t yet. I’m relieved I finally played this one… but honestly, I think I’ll have to part with it. I’m not sure I could do another play of the campaign.

      And thank you for your kind words! Much appreciated.

  3. Avian Overlord

    It’s interesting to note in light of your experiences that Toppen was inspired to make Navajo Wars while living and working as a pastor on the Navajo reservation.

    • Much of the research for that game was drawn from Toppen’s direct interactions with the Navajo — oral history adapted into board game form! Pretty cool.

      And he’s still a pastor. Now he lives on the Blackfeet reservation.

  4. This is a remarkable review, Dan. And thank you for sharing your personal history along with it.

    I also notice that you left off the quippy picture-captions (not real captions, but you know what I mean). That just adds emphasis to how serious and heartfelt this review is.

    I’m not sure how many people will notice, but I wanted to let you know that I did, at least.

    • Thanks, Dave. And yes, glad to hear somebody noticed! Doing alt-texts felt crass this time around. Not every article needs shots from the sidelines.

      • MuzzaBzzuzza

        I noticed too, initially thought maybe there was a technical issue and refreshed my browser.

        Having then read your documented experience (“review” seems like too pale a word), I agree this was the right call.

        I’ve had the game for a few months now (the pandemic increased my solo collection from almost none to almost two dozen) but I confess to being daunted by the complexity (relative to other fare I’ve sampled thus far; Pavlov’s House, Cofee Roaster, Under Falling Skies, Sprawlopolis). This article has reignited my interest. Thank you for sharing your thoughts and, more importantly, feelings.

      • The rules heft is definitely there, but the supporting materials are fantastic. Those two reminder sheets carried me through the early stages when I would have otherwise given up.

  5. Dan, this may be the best review that you have ever written, nay, it may be the best review ever written.

    I have yet to play Comancheria. But, Navajo Wars is currently my “favorite” game of all time. I interacted very briefly with you on Twitter where I confessed that it feels deeply wierd to have such moving experience be my favorite game of all time. You asked me why I felt that it was wierd to have it be my favorite. I haven’t replied to that question yet. I have been struggling to know how to frame a response in 140 characters.

    Your last paragraph and your experiences as a Mormon missionary help flesh out why it feels wierd to consider this my “favorite” if I make a top ten list or something like that.

    I am currently a missionary pastor in El Salvador. For 4 years, as a child, I lived in El Salvador where I formed deep and abiding friendships that I still maintain. I like to think that “our churches” don’t make some of the mistakes that you outlined “your churches” making. But, I know that, if I say that, then I am lying. I know that there are those down here who are actively promoting a colonial ideology. No matter how I feel or how I pastor, is it possible that I, myself, am helping push simplify the people to whom I minister? Is it possible that I, with all my benovolence am, in fact, acting as an agent for social colonialism?

    Perhaps it feels wierd to me to have such a deeply uncomfortable experience be my favorite. NW is not an easy game to play. It is a game that makes me question my very way of life. It is an experience that I rarely engage in, and every time I play it I do so with some trepidition. But every time I play it, I come away with my questions, not answered but augmented. I also come away feeling like a better person every time I play it.

    • Thank you for your thoughts, Chrism. El Salvador is a beautiful country. I had the pleasure of helping with an ophthalmic medical mission to there a few years ago. The group, which goes every year (apart from COVID years), consists of mixed Christians, and there’s a heavy focus on care over proselytizing. Even then, some of the group’s members have expressed a wariness over the possibility of spreading hegemonic ideology.

      That wariness is key, I think. We can never fully escape our origins. But we can learn and strive to treat those origins with the proper respect, both for the advantages they conferred and for how to approach other origins and other peoples with dignity and openness. I hope so, anyway.

      But truly, I appreciate your input. The questions you raise are difficult, and they’re questions I often ask myself.

  6. Dan,

    I came across your writing just several months ago. I was so impressed by your comfortable and clever prose that I sent your link to my daughter who is seeking a career in writing.

    The quality and depth of your work continues to amaze and reward my attention.

    Stated simply, thank you.

  7. I am finishing a history of the Comanche wars, “Empire of the Summer Moon”. After losing the Red River War, and finally accepting the reality of the reservation, the Comanche had to suffer the indignity of cattlemen driving their herds through the reservation that had been given to the tribe, often using the reservation pastures to fatten the cattle before the final drive to the railheads in Kansas.

  8. Christian van Someren

    Navajo Wars was one of my first wargames, and like you, I found it incredibly profound and moving. Here was a game that really took great strides in describing the Navajo, their culture, their way of life, their struggles and ultimately their indignities. When people say that boardgames can’t teach, Navajo War (and Comancheria) are my immediate counter examples.

    As a Canadian, I am often shocked about how little I actually know about the aboriginal cultures in my home country. The recent revelations about the horrors of the residential school system were shocking in their magnitude. This has motivated me to learn more about the aboriginal people of North America, although shockingly little exists. (I do recommend the Iroquois History and Legends Podcast though, if you are interested in learning about that culture).

    Others have recommended checking out Navajo Wars if you enjoyed this, and I would also add Mound Builders to the list. Another interesting and deep game about Native American history.

    I don’t need to say it, but this was an excellent review. Here’s hoping that Joel Topen and others continue to develop games about the peoples and cultures which are often forgotten by history.

    • Thank you for the recommendations, Christian! I owned Navajo Wars for years, but ultimately had to move it along when I couldn’t bring myself to play it. I’ve been curious about Mound Builders for a while — I’ll have to see about rustling up a copy.

      And you’re right, the news about the residential schools has been shocking. A similar program was undertaken here in Utah, and I’ve been curious to hear whether any new research would go forward.

  9. *probably poorly written, but wanted to chime in (feeling myself sink back into the chair as i write this lol)

    Thanks Dan! Greatly appropriate time for it given the recent exposure of the children corpses in Canada. I’m glad that a broader number of people are finally able to at least acknowledge that things aren’t just as simple as “well the romans did conquered, what’s the difference?”

    When we push to be seen as a modern society, we need modern standards to be held to.

    Even growing up on a rez, I was brainwashed into down playing the intergenerational traumas that I lived around as a club to join (thinking in terms of the suffering around the world at large), and, as an example. how hearing stories of rape and how family and elders would tell their nieces/nephews, daughters/sons, and granddaughters/sons that it’s a part of life like it’s a rite of passage, nevermind rest of the constellation of family/community dysfunction formed by such trauma.

    I only hope that as people become more aware of the heritage and wisdom of their ancestors that can be applied that there can be a new identity to associate to and grow from.

    I can imagine how awful and helpless it can feel to be associated with the bigotry of your “peers” at the time(i wouldn’t call them that though, you are much better than that!)

    It’s an interesting-sounding game, though i’d likely never play it due to the complexity of the game. I’m glad that it exists though. The complicated history of Native Americans (the indignities) of such games makes me feel like it’s more a good segway into thinking over why even though the Comanche weren’t perfect, why a colonialist attitude and mandate is even conceivable as an acceptable response moving forward into our modern time.

    • Thank you for sharing, Anjovi, and I’m sorry to hear about your own experiences.

      Unfortunately, I heard of similar things on the Crow rez, but of course I have no idea how widespread they were. In my own life, certain adolescent abuses were also depicted as proofs of strength; that by bearing them quietly rather than speaking out, I was somehow more “blessed.” I hope to pass along a very different message to my children. It’s always a failure when we totemize our traumas rather than learning how to ameliorate them.

  10. That is a fantastic piece of writing, game review or otherwise.

    Cheers,

    Pete.

  11. This is a powerful and poignant piece, thank you for writing it!

    I suspect there are many who think of missionary activity as part and parcel of colonial patterns of behavior (i.e. “bad”), but to me the real issue that stories like the one you share about the white missionaries illustrate is the problem that arises when missionary work doesn’t go far /enough/.

    Larry Hurtado argues in Destroyer of the Gods that the early Jesus movement essentially invented the idea of an identity separate and distinct from one’s ethnic group; that you could be a Phrygian AND a Christian (say) was not an idea with any cultural currency previously. This ability to essentially transfer your group affiliation to a different group, that wasn’t familial or ethnic, was certainly distinctive and also highly attractive. And it led to a radical equality that was one of the many aspects that made the Jesus movement seem weird to the culture in which it was embedded.

    Thus the fundamental and crucial element of conversion is that in converting, the person becomes /fully in-group/. That doesn’t mean their former group identity or affiliation must (or should) disappear, it simply means that there’s no stratification within the group along the lines of former group identities. This is one of the many reasons that, e.g., conversion-by-the-sword is unacceptable; not just the violence (though obviously that’s bad), but because the subjugated converts remain subjugated, they don’t become full-fledged radically equal brothers and sisters, and that’s not how things were originally, or ought to be, done.

  12. This is a beautiful piece of writing both moving and informative. Thank you.

  1. Pingback: #4thofJuly Sunday Summary – Lazy dog days summer means little #wargame #boardgame action with mentions of @gmtgames @LeeBWood @DanThurot @PastorJoelT @fortcircle @beyondsolitaire #TravellerRPG @FFGames @m_older – RockyMountain Navy Gamer

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

%d bloggers like this: